Home Page Scientific Methods Cell Structure Cell Function Microbes Plants Animals Biology Activities Biology4Kids Sections Search


Obviously, not all plants look the same. They have different flowers, stems, and even root structures. Extreme examples have given some plants big advantages. These advantages have let them settle in new environments and become more successful.

Cactus thorns are as uniques and specialized as each species.


What kinds of leaves are there? What kinds aren't there? There are thick ones for storing water as in succulents. There are long twisting vine-like leaves that can wrap around and dig in for support as in grapes. There are also thorns. Nothing says, "Don't eat me" like a bunch of sharp thorns on your branches.


Flowers have developed such a wide variety. That variety is often dependent on what kind of creature helps out with the pollination. If I am a big insect, I will be looking at plants with big flowers. If I am a tiny little bug, I might live my whole life inside a flower. There are also a variety of colors that attract different insects and animals.

Many of the flowers you see, like daisies, are actually dozes of small flowers.


Stems are a good place to store water. It's very efficient to develop a big protected area. Think about a barrel in hot areas where water is scarce. Enter a cactus. All stem and trunk. No leaves. Having no leaves means very little evaporation on hot days. Other extremes are plants with no stem. They could grow one, being vascular plants, but they have found it to be an advantage to stay near the ground. Vines are another extreme.

The bark of a tree or plant can also perform a specific function. Corks in wine bottles are actually from the bark of a tree (cork tree). Some bark has been designed to peel away as the tree grows. Other types of bark are very thick to protect the plant from animals and insects.


Not all plants even live in the ground. Some specialized plants called epiphytes actually live on the side of other trees or on rocks. They are able to collect water themselves but do not use roots to gather it up. Their roots have been specialized to dig in or grab on to the larger object. They don't always hurt the trees; they just hang out on the outside. Epiphytes can include some seedless species, bromeliads, and orchids. There are also epiphyte species that can grow very large and even break tree limbs. They can suck nutrients away from the tree and weaken it over time. Several ficus species are killer parasitic epiphytes.

Related Activities

Plants Quiz General Plants Quiz
- Take the Quiz

Plants Slideshow Plants Slideshow
- View the Show

Next Page on Plants

- Overview
- Photosynthesis
- Basic Structure
- Xylem-Phloem
- Reproduction
> Special Structures
- Mosses & Liverworts
- Ferns & Horsetails
- Gymnosperms
- Angiosperms
- Man and Plants


Link to Link to Link to Link to Link to Link to Rader Sites Side Navigation

- Biology4Kids: Scientific Method
- Chem4Kids: Metabolism
- Chem4Kids: Carbohydrates
- Geography4Kids: Ecosystems
- Geography4Kids: Food Chains
- Geography4Kids: Carbon Cycle
- Geography4Kids: Oxygen Cycle
- Geography4Kids: Nitrogen Cycle

Search for more information...

* The custom search only looks at Rader's sites.

Help Page Go for site help or a list of biology topics at the site map!
©copyright 1997-2014 Andrew Rader Studios, All rights reserved.
Current Page: | Plants | Special Plant Structures

** Andrew Rader Studios does not monitor or review the content available at these web sites. They are paid advertisements and neither partners nor recommended web sites.